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RK3288 RK3399 ARM Chromebook

I acquired a RK3288 ARM Cortex A17 (arm hard float) based Chromebook: the Asus C201 (or the shiny metal twin Asus Flip C100PA) and I love it: long battery life, light and easy to carry around and has suspend and wifi working (yes I mean working).
This wiki describes the software customizations I did on this ultrabook. I recently transitioned to the RK3399 based Asus C100PA second generation (USBC) to which most of the below notes still applies.
You can refer to chromebook codenames here, C201 RK3288 is speedy based on veyron board and C101PA RK3399 is bob based on gru board.

ChromeOS tips

  • open a crosh terminal: CTRL-ALT-t and then launch a shell with shell command under crosh (more crosh options there)

Turn on developper mode

Follow only the specific step described here.

  • hold jointly ESC+REFRESH+POWER
  • get developper (this will wipe clean your device)

Note that at each boot you will need to hold CTRL-D keys.

Install debian chroot

What is nice on a linux machine is that you can install in a chroot in parallel of the ChromeOS a full debian: this is achieved using crouton

cd $HOME/Downloads
sudo sh ./crouton -r stretch -t xfce,xiwi,cli-extra,keyboard,audio,core,extension,xorg -p /media/removable/sdcard
sudo startxfce4 -X xiwi &
sudo startxfce4 -X xorg &
sudo enter-chroot exec env XMETHOD=xorg startxfce4
sudo enter-chroot exec env XMETHOD=xiwi startxfce4

In order to switch to the "debian desktop" you need to hold jointly CTRL+ALT+SHIFT+FORWARD keys (FORWARD is the key next to REFRESH on the top) when using the xorg XMETHOD otherwise the fullscreen key will do just fine.

Note that you can always delete your chroot via sudo delete-chroot stretch if needed.

Crouton cheatsheet is there if you need to learn more.

Note that chroot filesystem location is stored there /usr/local/chroots/stretch or /media/removable/sdcard/chroots/stretch if you have used the prefix (-p) option.

You can define default XMETHOD in /etc/crouton/xmethod.

Temporary netsurf-gtk installation issue with debian

Installation of crouton with debian target might fail because of a package netsurf-gtk not being available. The current workaround is to proceed following these steps:
sudo sh ./crouton -r stretch -t xiwi,cli-extra,keyboard,audio,core,extension,xorg -p /media/removable/sdcard
sudo enter-chroot
apt install xfce4 xfce4-session xfce4-goodies
sudo sh ./crouton -r stretch -t xfce,xiwi,cli-extra,keyboard,audio,core,extension,xorg -p /media/removable/sdcard -u
sudo enter-chroot
I then manually the missing netsurf-gtk and netsurf-common packages from debian unstable (sid) downloading them following the highligted links and via a simple sudo dpkg -i command.

Debian customization

localectl set-locale LANG=fr_FR.UTF-8
timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Paris
hostnamectl set-hostname $MYHOSTNAME

hostname $MYHOSTNAME
vi /etc/hostname
vi /etc/hosts localhost mark32

apt install sudo screen mutt irssi vim eclipse subversion-tools rsync mosh less unrar tig git openssh-server build-essential python python-setuptools python-pip python-pip3 convmv sqlite urlview w3m par iceweasel metastore curl most ispell ifrench mtp-tools apg terminator xpdf mupdf metastore dnsutils retext zim epubcheck calibre openbox obconf meld rxvt-unicode apt-file octave maxima wxmaxima wmctrl comix locate tmux nmap catdoc wv elinks links lynx vim-gtk tidy libwmf-bin libreoffice inkscape gv ttm pmount mpc ncmpc mplayer epstool texmaker gnupg pinentry-tty pinentry-curses silversearcher-ag
setkbmap fr
apt install locales
locale-gen en_US en_US.UTF-8 en_US.ISO-8859-1 en_US.ISO-8859-15 fr_FR fr_FR.UTF-8 fr_FR.ISO-8859-15 fr_FR.ISO-8859-1
dpkg-reconfigure locales
Generating locales (this might take a while)...
  en_US.ISO-8859-1... done
  en_US.ISO-8859-15... done
  en_US.UTF-8... done
  fr_FR.UTF-8... done
  fr_FR.UTF-8... done
  fr_FR.ISO-8859-15@euro... done
update-locale LANG="fr_FR.UTF-8" LANGUAGE="fr:en"

Set different keyboard layout

Yes I am french and I use a french keyboard...

vi /etc/default/keyboard

sudo localectl set-x11-keymap fr chromebook

Sadly I was not able to modify xorg keyboard layout or getting xiwi to execute the $HOME/.xiwirc without enforcing in .bashrc the following:
[ `hostname` == "mark32" -a -n "$DISPLAY" ] && setxkbmap -model chromebook -layout fr

Enable services on chromebook

openssh server

In order to get traffic in you need to change iptables rules:

apt install openssh-server iptables
vi /etc/rc.local
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
/etc/init.d/ssh start

full /etc/rc.local script

Note that the below script does include all the modifications explained on this web page:
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
/etc/init.d/ssh start
/etc/init.d/screen-cleanup start
/etc/init.d/ start
/etc/init.d/keyboard-setup start
# no longer necessary since binfmt is compiled builtin in recent chromeos kernels
#insmod /agraver/git/kernel/fs/binfmt_misc.ko
/etc/init.d/binfmt-support start
#mount -t binfmt_misc none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
service start exagear
mount --bind /agraver /opt/exagear/images/debian-8/agraver
/etc/init.d/cups start

exit 0

Simple sudo

cat /etc/sudoers
# Allow members of group sudo to execute any command
#%sudo ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

Freeing some storage space

More tips can be found there but essentially you should from time to time issue:

apt-get clean

To further expand storage space you can move the chroot on external microsd card preliminary ext4 formatted (note that this means that you need your sdcard to run crouton):

sudo edit-chroot -m /media/removable/debiansd/chroots/ stretch

Now to launch any crouton commands you need to append -c /media/removables/debiansd/chroots option.

Alternatively you can ln -s /media/removable/debiansd/chroots/stretch /usr/local/chroot/stretch

Repair chroot after chromeos update

sudo sh -e ~/Downloads/crouton -u -n stretch

Reinstall or update crouton binaries

In the chromeos (crosh) domain:

sudo curl -L -# -o /usr/local/bin/crouton && sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/crouton
sudo /usr/local/bin/crouton -b

Full screen or not full screen

  • upgrade chroot with xiwi
sudo sh $HOME/Downloads/crouton -u -t xiwi -r stretch
  • to launch temporarily full screen or embedded use the following
sudo startxfce4 -X xorg
sudo startxfce4 -X xiwi

Things to do at each boot

  • login with your user
  • open shell tab (CTRL-ALT-t) un chrome and launch shell
  • under the shell launch chroot via cd; sh ./ following script
sudo /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 -X xiwi > /dev/null 2>&1 &

Android tools

# Seems broken for now on debian stretch
#apt install abootimg android-libcutils android-libcutils-dev android-liblog android-liblog-dev android-libzipfile android-libzipfile-dev android-system-dev android-tools-adb android-tools-fastboot android-tools-fsutils androidsdk-ddms androidsdk-hierarchyviewer androidsdk-traceview androidsdk-uiautomatorviewer bc
apt install abootimg android-platform-tools-base android-platform-frameworks-native-headers android-platform-system-core-headers
apt install aapt android-libaapt adb

For some reasons adb, fastboot etc. are not available on stretch: you need to install manually via dpkg -i the sid packages or prioritize the repositories to view sid packages. It is available here: adb fastboot fsutils. I tried to recompile the package manually but there are some issues not trivial to fix.

WARNING DO NOT DO THIS SINCE IT INTERFERES WITH CROUTON UPDATES!!! Another way to proceed is to add unstable debian packages into the apt source list with proper apt-pinning via

cat /etc/apt/sources.list
#deb stretch main non-free contrib
#deb-src stretch main non-free contrib
deb stable main non-free contrib
deb-src stable main non-free contrib
deb testing main non-free contrib
deb-src testing main non-free contrib
deb unstable main non-free contrib
deb-src unstable main non-free contrib
cat /etc/apt/preferences
Package: *
Pin: release a=stable
Pin-Priority: 200

Package: *
Pin: release a=testing
Pin-Priority: 1000

Package: *
Pin: release a=unstable
Pin-Priority: 100

apt install adb fastboot android-libcutils


apktool is a nifty tool to modify/customize apk. In order to install it follow this steps:
chmod a+rx apktool
mv apktool_2.0.2.jar apktool.jar
chmod a+rx apktool.jar
cp apktool.jar apktool /usr/local/bin
Now you can apktool d/b.

Intel based installation

Some stuff you would need to run properly Android SDK command line tools on Intel based platforms (yes I know this is an ARM chromebook thus not relevant here):

apt install lib32z1

Attempt to build Android SDK on ARM (WIP)

In order to compile Android applications on the chromebook, I started to build the Android SDK following the instructions detailed here and cloning the files there. Note that currently Android build system does not yet support arm host compilation. Here are the steps I followed:

  • Get Android AOSP source following these instructions and get shallow git restricting pull to be of depth 1 to gain space on non infinite storage host
cd aosp
repo init --depth 1 -u -b android-8.1.0_r18
cd ..
git clone
cd android-build-tools-for-arm
find . -type d -name .git -prune -o -type f -print -exec cp {} ../aosp/{}.new \;
cd ../aosp
# MERGE differences with vimdiff blah
. build/
lunch sdk-eng
make sdk

todo: create aosp/prebuilts/gcc/linux-arm

Overall to reduce size of the cloning of the repo you need to use the two following tricks, i) shallow clone and ii) sync only the current branch (note: it has limitations)

repo init --depth 1
repo sync -c

Have fun with programming

apt install geany-plugin-py geany-plugins geany-plugins-common geany python-pygame idle racket racket-doc scratch scala
apt install build-essential m4 autoconf automake
#dpkg -i scala-2.11.7.deb

Screenshots with Android under linux

adb shell screencap -p | grep -v WARNING | perl -pe 's/\x0D\x0A/\x0A/g' > screenshot.png

MTP with a chromebook

Yes it work with the native chromebook filebrowser and you can enable write suppport with this trick: chrome://flags/#enable-mtp-write-support

screen needs some cleaning at startup

Users are getting permission denied when invoking screen: to get around this add in /etc/rc.local

vi /etc/rc.local
/etc/init.d/screen-cleanup start

Useful commands

sudo enter-chroot
xiwi -T terminator &
xiwi -T xpdf &
sudo /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 -X xiwi > /dev/null 2>&1 &
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -u -n jessie -t xiwi,xfce
sudo unmount-chroot -f -a

Some interesting reading

    Run i386 binaries on armhf architecture

    If you need to run some i386 binaries because of the Intel supremacy and people not understanding that Linux is not only x86 you can use qemu (e.g. for k2pdfopt):

    dpkg --add-architecture i386
    apt install zlib1g:i386
    apt install qemu-user-static
    qemu-i386-static ./i386_binary_to_run

    Debian upgrade process

    • Jessie to stretch debian upgrade
    cp /etc/apt/sources.list{,.jessie-bak}
    sed -i -e 's/ \(stable\|jessie\)/ stretch/ig' /etc/apt/sources.list
    apt upate
    apt --download-only dist-upgrade
    apt dist-upgrade

    Then upgrade crouton: sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -u -n jessie -t xiwi,xfce

    Browse network shares

    There are two ways to mount SMB network shares with chrome:

    Main issue is that cifs module is lacking in chrome kernel though fuse is indeed present.
    To avoid kernel recompilation at each chrome update, I selected the userspace smbnetfs way.
    Here are the steps that I followed:
    • allow user to use fuse
    vi /etc/fuse.conf
    • addgroup fuse and let the user access it
    addgroup USER fuse
    chgrp fuse /dev/fuse
    apt install cifs-utils samba smbnetfs smbclient
    • configure these files to match your network credentials, workgroup and hosts:
    mkdir $HOME/.smb
    cd .smb
    cp /etc/smbnetfs.conf .
    touch smbnetfs.auth
    chmod go-rwx *
    • launch the beast:
    mkdir $HOME/Network
    smbnetfs $HOME/Network
    • to unmount:
    fusermount -u $HOME/Network

    Explorations WIP not to be used:

    ldd /usr/bin/smbnetfs | sed "s:^.*/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/\([^ ]*\).*$:ln -s /usr/local/chroots/jessie/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/\1 .:g" | grep ^ln > $HOME/Downloads/todo
    mkdir /usr/local/lib
    cd /usr/local/lib
    sh /home/chronos/user/Downloads/todosh /home/chronos/user/Downloads/todo
    sh /home/chronos/user/Downloads/todo

    MTP under linux

    Follow: h

    apt install libmtp-dev git golang go-mtpfs
    #mkdir /tmp/go
    #export GOPATH=/tmp/go
    #go get
    #mv /tmp/go/bin/go-mtpfs /usr/local/sbin/go-mtpfs
    #chmod a+x /usr/local/sbin/go-mtpfs

    Automatic mount and unmount via udev new rules and matching ID_MODEL and ID_MODEL_ID and MODEL_ID_ENC running udevadm monitor --environment --udev

    apt install usbutils
    udevadm monitor --environment --udev
    mkdir /media/motog4
    chmod a+rwx /media/motog4
    vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-android.rules
    # Google MotoG4 MTP mode : automatic mount when plugged (all android versions)
    ENV{ID_MODEL}=="Moto_G__4_", ENV{ID_MODEL_ID}=="4e41", ACTION=="add", RUN+="/usr/bin/sudo -b -u marc /usr/local/sbin/go-mtpfs -allow-other=true /media/motog4"
    ENV{ID_MODEL}=="Moto_G__4_", ENV{ID_MODEL_ID}=="2e76", ACTION=="add", RUN+="/usr/bin/sudo -b -u marc /usr/local/sbin/go-mtpfs -allow-other=true /media/motog4"
    # Google MotoG4 MTP mode : automatic unmount when unplugged (all android versions)
    ENV{ID_MODEL}=="Moto_G__4_", ENV{ID_MODEL_ID}=="2e76", ACTION=="remove", RUN+="/bin/umount /media/motog4"
    service udev restart
    vi /etc/fstab
    # use MODEL_ID_ENC
    DeviceFs(Moto\x20G\x20\x284\x29) /media/motog4 fuse.DeviceFs(Moto\x20G\x20\x284\x29) allow_other,rw,users,noauto 0 0

    Recompile own kernel or specific kernel modules

    Following, first step is to check what is your chromeos release via cat /etc/lsb-release and then grep release on and shallow clone specific relevant branch e.g.:
    git clone --depth 1 -b release-R56-9000.B-chromeos-3.14

    Practical example: binfmt_misc kernel module recompilation

    First you must allow module loading following i.e. under crosh shell do:

    cd ~/Downloads
    sudo sh ~/Downloads/change-kernel-flags
    sudo reboot

    NOTE that the example below is deprecated since now by default chromeos kernel has BINFMT_MISC=yes in the config file.

    In order to build your own module detailed instructions are provided here which translates when applying to the c201 chromebook device in:

    sudo apt-get install git-core make kernel-package
    git clone --depth 1 -b release-R56-9000.B-chromeos-3.14
    cd kernel
    vi chromeos/config/base.config
    ./chromeos/scripts/prepareconfig chromiumos-rockchip
    ln -s include/linux/compiler-gcc5.h include/linux/compiler-gcc6.h
    make fs/binfmt_misc.ko

    x86 wine support on arm chromebook

    Idea is to go chromos/armv7 -> crouton debian chroot/armv7 -> qemu-i386 -> wine32 i386 -> office.

    The qemu way

    First you need to have binfmt_misc kernel module (cf. previous section) then:

    #insmod fs/binfmt_misc.ko
    #mkdir -p /var/binfmt_misc
    #mount -t binfmt_misc none /var/binfmt_misc
    /etc/init.d/binfmt-support start
    echo ':i386:M::\x7fELF\x01\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x03\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xfe\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-i386:' > /var/binfmt_misc/register
    echo ':DOSWin:M::MZ::/usr/local/bin/wine:' >/var/binfmt_misc/register
    mv /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/wine/bin/wine-preloader /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/wine/bin/wine-preloader.renamed
    apt install qemu-user
    Now you can try wine on a x86 windows binary such has 7zip:
    dpkg --add-architecture i386
    apt update
    apt install wine32:i386
    xiwi -T wine32 7z920.exe

    You get basic functionality you miss multi thread. People are suggesting to apply the following patches to qemu-i386 and wine32: and

    The exagear non free software way

    In order to get better performance on armv7 machines and get a working solution, it is advised to use the non free exagear desktop software, some interesting configuration notes are found there

    I managed to have office 2007 working using exagear shell through the following steps:

    insmod fs/binfmt_misc.ko
    mount -t binfmt_misc none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
    service start exagear
    • as a user launch exagear desktop (uname -a will tell you that you are i686 arch):
    sudo apt install wine32
    • then install office 2007
    • after this in order not to crash office applications launch winecfg and go in Applications -> Wine -> Configure Wine -> Libraries, search for riched20 then click add and then modify it to choose "native Windows"

    You can also add missing windows tools using winetricks following or

    sudo apt install cabextract
    winetricks vcrun2008 dotnet20 dotnet40 msxml6 riched20 riched30 gdiplus
    winetricks vb2run vb3run vb4run vb5run vb6run ie8 corefonts

    Note that exagear is a bit overkill because it installs another i386 chroot inside the crouton arm chroot, there might be a way to use the original debian arm chroot with the i386 architecture added. It would result in a tremendous saving in disk space which matters on chromebooks. Question has been asked to exagear developper and the answer is negative :-(.


    Only way I found is to install a cups server (http://localhost:631 to configure) and export as pdf and the print the resulting page through crouton with lp -o position=top,fit-to-page,scaling=100,media=a4  file.pdf

    sudo apt install cups system-config-printer cups-client printer-driver-hpijs hpijs-ppds hplip printer-driver-pxljr printer-driver-hpcups

    You need to add to one user lpadmin priviledges: 

    addgroup USER lpadmin

    For a Konica Minolta bizhub 227, I used AppSocket socket:// and KO958FX.ppd from Konica web site.

    For a HP Officejet Pro 8600 Plus, I used AppSocket socket:// and for the driver the the cups HP Officejet Pro 8600, hpcups 3.16.

    Note that in order to use the localhost cups server from chromeos side I use the following chrome extension: IPP / CUPS printing from Chrome and Chromebook.

    For HP printer there is a chrome extension that can be used too: HP print for Chrome.

    xorg tweaks and experimentations

    In order to get an accelerated xorg running you need either to recompile your armsoc video driver or use xorg XMETHOD with freon configuration but the safest remains to use xiwi XMETHOD.

    video driver: the armsoc way

    Since debian does not have xf86-video-armsoc driver package you need to recompile it through these steps on rockchip using this driver repository:

    EGL can be extracted using either or latest version found there:

    apt install libudev-dev xserver-xorg-dev xutils-dev autoconf automake autogen libtool-bin m4
    git clone -b devel/rockchip
    ./ --prefix=/usr --with-drmmode=rockchip
    make && make install
    mkdir -p /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d
    vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-armsoc.conf
    Section "Device" Identifier "Mali FBDEV" Driver "armsoc" Option "fbdev" "/dev/fb0" Option "Fimg2DExa" "false" Option "DRI2" "true" Option "DRI2_PAGE_FLIP" "false" Option "DRI2_WAIT_VSYNC" "true" Option "SWcursorLCD" "false" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "DefaultScreen" Device "Mali FBDEV" DefaultDepth 24 EndSection
    cd /usr/lib
    # check that there is no MESA software libs in the way...
    cp* libGLESv*so** /usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/
    sudo rm -f /dev/dri/card0
    sudo mv /dev/dri/card{1,0}
    XMETHOD=xorg startxfce4
    # check performance
    apt install mesa-utils-extra
    EGL_VERSION = 1.4 Midgard-"r5p0-14wk51"
    327.000 FPS
    Flip xorg discussions At this point there is a remaining issue that xorg complains about "unable to load driver:".
    You can go back and forth from xorg to chrome through <CTRL>+<ALT>+<SHIFT>+<->> and for avoiding the white screen you can still get to the console with <CTRL>+<ALT>++<<-> from chromeos.

    video driver: the freon way

    Following flip xorg crouton discussions it seems that modesetting driver should be used instead of fbdev and there is already some arm acceleration in freon, to enable it using xorg XMETHOD just use the following xorg.conf:
    vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-armsoc.conf
    Section "Device"
            Identifier      "Mali"
            Driver          "modesetting"
            Option          "ShadowFB"              "false"
    Section "Screen"
            Identifier      "DefaultScreen"
            Device          "Mali"
            DefaultDepth    24
    Section "DRI"
            Mode            0666
    Section "Module"
            Disable         "glamoregl"
            Disable	        "fbdev"

    input driver: the synaptics way

    In order to activate natural scrolling you need to go through the following steps:

    apt install xserver-xorg-input-synaptics
    cp /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/70-synaptics.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/
    vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/70-synaptics.conf
    # natural scrolling
            Option "VertScrollDelta" "-111"
            Option "HorizScrollDelta" "-111"

    In order to tune the various driver options do it through xinput:

    apt install xinput

    Input driver: the cmt way

    cmt was the xorg chromeos driver that can be recompiled:

    git clone
    cd libevdevc
    make && make install
    cd ..
    apt install libjsoncpp-dev
    git clone
    cd libgestures
    vi include/gestures/include/finger_metrics.h
    #include <cmath>
    make && make install
    cd ..
    git clone
    cd xf86-input-cmt
    chmod a+rx
    ./ --prefix=/usr
    make && make install
    cd xorg-conf
    cp 20-mouse.conf 40-touchpad-cmt.conf 60-touchpad-cmt-veyron_speedy.conf /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/
    cp 20-mouse.conf 40-touchpad-cmt.conf 60-touchpad-cmt-veyron_speedy.conf /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/
    cp 20-mouse.conf 40-touchpad-cmt.conf 60-touchpad-cmt-veyron_speedy.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/

    The you need to blacklist synaptics driver in Module section
    vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-armsoc.conf
    Disable         "synaptics"

    Tuning of the driver various options can be achieved through xinput --list-props 7


    I would stick with xorg XMETHOD with modesetting driver since it does have less strange susped/resume issues and chromeos<->xorg switch glitches and cmt driver for the Elan touchpad driver.
    But I have issues after switching back from suspend to have xorg not freezing.
    I thus now use xiwi because it simply works...

    Accelerated video decoding

    Disclaimer: please note that this section is still WIP and nothing works so far...
    The best result I have so far to play videos is through xorg XMETHOD with modesetting driver and mplayer using x11 video output (not hardware accelerated) that is good enough for H264 1080p lite decoding.
    vlc under chromeos is unstable.
    I am eagerly waiting for Google Play support on the deivces to switch to Archos Video Player...

    Rockchip linux source code

    There is some code released by Rockchip here 
    git clone
    apt install libegl1-mesda-dev libgles2-mesa-dev libdrm-dev
    sed -i -e "s:drm/drm_fourcc.h:drm_fourcc.h:g" presentation_queue.c
    # FAILS -> missing librkdec-h264d and google does not know about it...
    export VDPAU_DRIVER=rockchip
    mpv --vo=vdpau --hwdec=vdpau --hwdec-codecs=all [filename]

    It seems that there is another way to get hw acceleration through libhybris on top of archlinux using this with illustration of the method working.

    mpv experimentations

    This does crash:
    mpv -fs -vo opengl:backend=x11egl:es=yes


    In order to avoid the gtk or ncurses pintentry dialog you can do:

    apt install pinentry-tty
    vi .gnupg/gpg-agent.conf
    #echo RELOADAGENT | gpg-connect-agent
    pinentry-program /usr/bin/pinentry-tty

    Misc issues

    Xiwi not launching because of undefined symbol

    I ran into the issue of xiwi not launching because of undefined symbol in xorg (ChangeWindowProperty). It was fixed in mergeboat branch and instead of waiting I just did:
    sudo CROUTON_BRANCH=mergeboat sh $HOME/Downloads/crouton -u ...
    but it did not help.
    In order to solve the issue I had to download xf86-server-dummy source from debian stretch, apply the diff and then extract from crouton targets/xiwi script in mergeboat branch the patch and rebuild manually after applying the deb package.

    Loss of sdcard after suspend

    The utmost annoying problem with chromebooks and crouton is that there is no real solution for already more than 3 years to the problem of loss of sdcard/usb stick after suspend preventing running crouton from external storage. This is really a shame because of the limited storage size of the current chromebooks and lack of ssd upgrade on recent models.
    In order to learn more about this problem you can refer to these long threads:
    Please do star these issues so that they get proper notice and support.
    Note that none of the previous fixes work now:
    The problem happens on Toshiba Chromebook 2, Acer Chromebook R11, Asus C201 impacting ARM and Intel platforms.
    I have been loosing countless time on this issue and I am very surprised that none of the Googlers that must be using croutong are not doing something about it.
    And yes I know that the real answer is; you are welcome to submit a patch.

    Issue comes from a modification of the code in disks/ where the unmount of sdcard is handled and a fix would be to get this patch in:

    diff --git a/chromeos/disks/ b/chromeos/disks/
    index 795ac9d..2db0e77 100644 --- a/chromeos/disks/ +++ b/chromeos/disks/ @@ -36,8 +36,7 @@ void SuspendUnmountManager::SuspendImminent() { return; std::set<std::string> mount_paths; for (const auto& pair : disk_mount_manager_->disks()) { - if ((pair.second->device_type() == DEVICE_TYPE_USB || - pair.second->device_type() == DEVICE_TYPE_SD) && + if ((pair.second->device_type() == DEVICE_TYPE_USB) && !pair.second->mount_path().empty()) { mount_paths.insert(pair.second->mount_path()); }

    For x86 architecture it will work on devices that are using a non USB based mmc sdcard reader (e.g. Acer R11) and will not with USB based mmc sdcard readers (e.g. Toshiba chromebook 2).

    I believe that this should not be a generic code but more architecture or device dependent since many SoC having a direct mmc interface (e.g. ARM) can manage suspend by their own without force unmount.

    Note to self: if a chromebook is to be bought check i) to have eMMC solution not soldered on the board (all new chromebooks do not fulfill this requirement unfortunately) to upgrade the internal storage capacity and, ii) if an intel is to be chosen make sure that the mmc controller is not on usb.

    Get google play on your C201 (and others) before it is released

    Yes this is possible (if there is a mention of ARC in chromeos settings/about version), you just need to fiddle with the chrome dev options and enable ARC:

    sudo -i
    cp /etc/chrome_dev.conf /usr/local
    echo "–enable-arc" >> /usr/local/chrome_dev.conf
    mount -o bind /usr/local/chrome_dev.conf /etc/chrome_dev.conf
    Disconnect and reconnect and voilà!

    Android studio running on ARM chromebook

    Note that this section is still WIP. The current status is:
    • android-studio can be launched and it is possible to build apps with SDK23 and SDK25
    • native code i.e. android-ndk works sometimes (I get compiler internal error building libav)
    Approach is to use a "Frankenstein" hybrid setup faking x86_64 architecture using qemu-x86_64 at the rescue but using ARM based Oracle JDK.
    Note that exagear cannot be used since it only supports 32bits and Android SDK is only x86_64 (64bits) (but exagear is working on 64b support but this will be anticipated to be much slower than what is proposed here since what is proposed it to used an hybrid ARM/x86_64-qemued).

    Compilation of "simple" java only apps (Android studio and gradle)

    You thus need to rely on qemu-x86_64 and properly register x86_64 magic to binfmt for seamless detection and execution:
    apt-install qemu-user binfmt-support
    echo ':x86_64:M::\x7fELF\x02\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x3e\x00:\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xfe\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xfe\xff\xff\xff:/usr/bin/qemu-x86_64:P' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
    dpkg --add-architecture x86_64
    apt install libc6:amd64
    sudo apt install lib32stdc++6
    sudo apt install libz1:amd64 libncurses5:amd64 zlib1g:amd64 libstdc++6:amd64
    /etc/init.d/binfmt-support start
    cd /usr/local/bin/
    chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/
    After this just download and run android studio for linux x86_64 architecture.
    Note that android-studio/jre/bin/java fails to execute. In order to solve this issue and boost things up download Oracle ARM jdk, install it in /opt/jdk and point android-studio/jre to this directory /opt/jdk:
    Install android-sdk tools command line version:
    mkdir /opt/android-sdk
    cd /opt/android-sdk
    cd tools/bin
    touch ~/.android/repositories.cfg
    ./sdkmanager "build-tools;28.0.3"
    ./sdkmanager "ndk-bundle"
    ./sdkmanager "platforms;android-28"
    ./sdkmanager "platforms;android-27"
    To make it work you really need to fix aapt (the best is for optimizations).
    cd /opt/android-studio
    mv jre jre-old
    ln -s /opt/jdk /opt/android-studio/jre
    cd /opt/android-sdk/build-tools/25.0.2
    mv aapt aapt_
    sudo apt install aapt
    ln -s /usr/bin/aapt
    for p in apksigner aidl dexdump zipalign split-select dx
    sudo apt install $p
    mv $p ${p}_
    ln -s /usr/bin/$p
    sudo apt install android-sdk-build-tools-common
    sudo apt install dalvik-exchange
    You need also to add a couple of i386 and x86_64 libraries to do some builds:
    dpkg --add-architecture i386
    sudo apt install libz1:i386 libncurses5:i386 zlib1g:i386 libstdc++6:i386 lib32z1 libc6-i386 lib32stdc++6 lib32gcc1 lib32ncurses5

    Can we go one step further and enable NDK support?

    What follows is the WIP to support android-ndk which works sometimes. If you do not need it you can stop there.
    Modify android NDK to force armv7l detected as x86_64 to use binfmt and qemu:
    diff --git a/build/core/ b/build/core/ index 56e5f300..328a81b6 100644 --- a/build/core/ +++ b/build/core/ @@ -242,6 +242,9 @@ ifndef HOST_ARCH ifneq (,$(findstring Power,$(UNAME))) HOST_ARCH := ppc endif + ifneq (,$(findstring arm,$(UNAME))) + HOST_ARCH := x86_64 + endif ifeq ($(HOST_ARCH),) $(call __ndk_info,Unsupported host architecture: $(UNAME)) $(call __ndk_error,Aborting) @@ -363,7 +366,7 @@ $(call ndk_log,Host 'cmp' tool: $(HOST_CMP)) # HOST_AWK := $(strip $(HOST_AWK)) ifndef HOST_AWK - HOST_AWK := awk + HOST_AWK := gawk endif $(call ndk_log,Host 'awk' tool: $(HOST_AWK)) diff --git a/ndk-build b/ndk-build index 62d6dc8c..dc353037 100755 --- a/ndk-build +++ b/ndk-build @@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ log "HOST_OS=$HOST_OS" HOST_ARCH=$(uname -m) case $HOST_ARCH in i?86) HOST_ARCH=x86;; - x86_64|amd64) HOST_ARCH=x86_64;; + x86_64|amd64|armv7l) HOST_ARCH=x86_64;; *) echo "ERROR: Unknown host CPU architecture: $HOST_ARCH"
    exit 1 esac
    Some platform tools are complaining to be obsolete: instead of using x86_64 ones link them back to native ARM one with a boost in performance benefit:
    cd android-ndk/prebuilt/linux-x86_64
    for f in awk perl python2.7 yasm
    mv $f "$f"_
    ln -s /usr/bin/$f
    mv sed sed_
    ln -s /bin/sed

    For some reasons a lot of x86_64 from NDK when run are not properly recognized by binfmt and qemu-x86_64 has to be forced.
    For this purpose I use following script
    #!/bin/sh p=`dirname $1` f=`basename $1` if [ -f qemu-"$f" ] then exit fi mv "$f" qemu-"$f" cat > "$1" <<EOF #!/bin/sh p=\`dirname \$0\` f=\`basename \$0\` exec qemu-x86_64 "\$p"/qemu-"\$f" "\$@" EOF chmod a+rx "$1"
    This needs to be applied to all the files identified by find . -type f -exec file {} \; | grep executable | grep ELF | grep -v qemu
    I applied this to several binaries in the android NDK:
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/libexec/gcc/arm-linux-androideabi/4.9/
    for f in cc1 cc1plus collect2 lto-wrapper lto1
    do $f
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin
    find . -type f -exec /home/marc/ {} \;
    ln -s qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-gcc qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-gcc-4.9
    ln -s qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-ld
    ln -s qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-g++ qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-c++
    ln -s ../../../../../toolchains/llvm-3.5/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin/qemu-ld.mcld qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-ld.mcld
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/arm-linux-androideabi/bin/
    for f in *; do ln -s ../../bin/qemu-arm-linux-androideabi-$f qemu-$f ; done
    rm qemu-ld
    ln -s ../../bin/ qemu-ld
    rm qemu-ld.mcld
    ln -s ../../../../../../toolchains/llvm-3.5/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin/ld.mcld qemu-ld.mcld
    ln -s ../../../../../../toolchains/llvm-3.5/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin/qemu-ld.mcld qemu-ld.mcld
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/llvm-3.5/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin
    for f in clang ld.mcld llc llvm-ar llvm-as llvm-dis llvm-link ndk-bc2native ndk-link ndk-strip ndk-translate opt ; do $HOME/ $f; done
    ln -s qemu-clang qemu-clang++
    or f in ndk-link ndk-strip ndk-translate; do ln -s qemu-$f qemu-le32-none-$f; ln -s qemu-$f qemu-le64-none-$f; done

    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/libexec/gcc/arm-linux-androideabi/4.9/plugin gengtype
    Is there any binary that I missed that is not a shell script:
    find -type f -executable -exec file -i '{}' \; | grep 'x-executable; charset=binary' | grep -v qemu
    Check that all links have been processed:
    find . -type l -exec ls -l {} \;

    Go full native instead?

    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/libexec/gcc/arm-linux-androideabi/4.9
    for f in cc1 cc1plus collect2 lto-wrapper lto1; do mv $f $f.orig ; ln -s /usr/lib/gcc/arm-linux-gnueabihf/6/$f; done
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/bin
    for f in addr2line ar as c++filt cpp dwp elfedit g++ gcc ar nm ranlib gcc-ar gcc-ar gcc-nm gcc-ranlib gcov gcov-tool gdb gprof ld ld.bfd nm objcopy objdump ranlib readelf size strings strip; do mv arm-linux-androideabi-$f arm-linux-androideabi-${f}.orig; ln -s /usr/bin/$f arm-linux-androideabi-$f; done
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/arm-linux-androideabi/bin
    for f in ar as ld ld.bfd nm objcopy objdump ranlib strip; do mv $f ${f}.orig; ln -s /usr/bin/$f ; done
    sudo apt install llvm
    Well for not it does not work.
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/lib/gcc
    ln -s arm-linux-androideabi arm-linux-gnueabihf
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64
    ln -s arm-linux-androideabi arm-linux-gnueabihf
    cd android-ndk/toolchains/arm-linux-androideabi-4.9/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/libexec/gcc
    ln -s arm-linux-androideabi arm-linux-gnueabihf
    Check what is called with strace and do all symlinks...
    Tedious work... and does not work.


    In order to get multicast zeroconf service such as mdns you need to:
    apt install avahi-daemon avahi-utils libnss-mdns

    Access local Android via adb on chromebook

    In crosh domain:

    # to be done once for all
    sudo crossystem dev_boot_signed_only=0
    sudo /usr/libexec/debugd/helpers/dev_features_rootfs_verification
    sudo reboot
    sudo /usr/libexec/debugd/helpers/dev_features_ssh

    Go in chromebook settings->search for android->GooglePlay settings->android preferences->about->click 5 times on build to be a developer and then switch on adb under developer settings.
    Connect to Android under chroot via (not using localhost:22 as advised

    adb connect

    Afterwards you can install any application via adb that you have locally compiled and run it without an emulator: sweet!

    If you experience issues and you cannot see any devices after connecting with adb devices try through Android settings to revoke all adb authentication tokens and cycle off/on adb.